Pareto Analysis of Critical Risk Factors of Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) Projects in Nigeria


  • Baba Shehu Waziri Department of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria



The need to meet the massive infrastructural gaps has led to the adoption of alternative procurement methods. Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) is one of the new ways used for procuring infrastructure. In developing countries, BOT projects are characterised by high-risk profile discouraging private investment. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the critical risk factors inherent in such arrangements with the view to attracting the desired level of private investment. This study employed Pareto Analysis to identify vital risk factors of BOT projects in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were used to establish critical risk factors based on the perception of key stakeholders (government, concessionaire, lenders, and developers) in Abuja. Kaduna, Port Harcourt and Lagos. Descriptive statistics were used to obtain Standard Deviation of the risk factors indicating their impacts and severity. Based on the results, Pareto Analysis was carried out to separate the /'vital few' from the 'trivial many'. The results indicated nine risk factors as the vital few responsible for 80% contribution. The risk factors include; changes in government policies, hostile general business environment, project company default, time performance risk, cost performance risk, excessive development cost, instability in government, failure to raise finance for the project and lack of experience in handling the project. Therefore, for effective implementation of BOT projects, it is necessary for stakeholders to focus on the /'vital few' risk factors responsible for 80% of the risk impacts. The results of the study may not be generalised for use by clients and contractors operating in environments with different political and economic climate with Nigeria as the impact and likelihood of occurrence of risks may vary.

Keywords: Build-operate-transfer, Nigeria, Pareto analysis, Risk factors.


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How to Cite

Waziri, B. S. (2018). Pareto Analysis of Critical Risk Factors of Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) Projects in Nigeria. Journal of Construction Business and Management, 2(1), 33–40.