A BESPOKE APPROACH FOR RELATING MATERIAL WASTE TO COST OVERRUN IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
The problems of material waste and cost overruns are common in the construction industry. These problems occur at different stages of a construction project, from planning, design to project completion. The argument on how to eliminate cost overrun has been on-going for the past 70 years as on-site wastage of materials leads to increase in the final project cost. This paper examines the relationship between the causes of material waste and those of cost overrun at the pre-contract and post-contract stages of a project. The desktop methodological approach was firstly adopted in comparing the causes of material waste and those of cost overruns from the literature, in order to determine the possible relationship. Subsequently, interviews were purposively conducted with construction professionals within Abuja, Nigeria, in order to verify the literature based information. The result reveals that all the causes of material waste also cause cost overrun at the pre-contract and the post-contract stages of a project. 96.88% and 81.81% of the causes of cost overrun also cause material waste at the pre-contract and post-contract stages respectively. Other causes which are not related are mostly, the micro-economic and macro-economic factors. These results are not different from those of the interviews conducted with professionals and summarised in the tick box. It was also found that to achieve Effective Construction Material Waste Management (ECMWM) for any construction project, material waste must be controlled at its sources and causes, and at different stages of a project. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that effective management of material waste would translate into a reduction in the level of project cost overrun. The study recommends that construction-project managers, as well as the construction practitioners should encourage the management of material-waste causes, as it has the potential to minimise cost overrun for projects.
Abdul-Rahman, I., Memon, A.H. and Abd. Karim, A.T. (2013). Significant Factors Causing Cost Overruns in Large Construction Projects in Malaysia. Journal of Applied Sciences,13(2), 286-293.
Adewuyi, T. O. and Otali, M. (2013). Evaluation of Causes of Construction Material Waste: Case of River State, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 6, 746-753.
Aiyetan, O. and Smallwood, J. (2013). Materials Management and Waste Minimisation on Construction Sites in Lagos State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM) 2013, 1161-1172.
Al-Hajj, A. and Hamani, K. (2011). Material Waste in the UAE Construction Industry: Main Causes and Minimisation Practices. Architectural Engineering and Design Management (Heriot-Watt University Gate way), 7(4), 221-235.
Al-Najjar, J.M. (2008). Factors Influencing Time and Cost Overruns on Construction Projects in the Gaza Strip. Masters Dissertation, Gaza, 1-206.
Allahaim, F.S. and Liu, L. (2012). Cost Overrun Causes, the Framework in Infrastructure Projects: Toward a Typology. 37th Australian University Building Educators Association, International Conference (AUBEA, 2012) Sydney, University of NSW (UNSW), 1-15.
Ameh, J. O. and Itodo, E. D. (2013). Professionals‟ Views of Material Wastage on Construction Sites. Organization, Technology and Management in Construction. An International Journal, 5(1), 747-757.
Ameh, O.J. Soyingbe, A.A. and Odusami. K.T. (2010). Significant Factors Causing Cost Overruns in Telecommunication Projects in Nigeria. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 15 (2), 49-67.
Apolot, R. Alinaitwe, H. and Tindiwensi, D. (2010). An Investigation into the Causes of Delay and Cost Overrun in Uganda‟s Public Sector Construction Projects: In, Second International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology, 2010, Uganda,
Ashworth, A. (2008). Pre-Contract Study Paper Back: Development Economics, Tendering and Estimating. Third edition, London: Blackwell publishing.
Azhar, N. Farooqui, R.U. and Ahmed, S.M (2008). Cost Overrun Factors in Construction Industry of Pakistan. First International Conference on Construction in Developing Countries (IC CIDC-I). Karachi, Pakistan. 499-508.
Baloyi, L. and Bekker, M. (2011). Causes of Construction Cost and Time Overruns: The 2010 FIFA World Cup Stadia inSouth Africa. Acta Structilia, 18 (1), 51-67.
Chikezirim, O. and Mwanaumo, E. (2013). Evaluation of Waste Management Strategies Adopted in Tshwane Building Industry. Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation (Centre of Construction Management and Leadership Development, 3 (1), 498 - 510.
Edward, C. (2009). Government Cost Overruns. CATO Institute, 2009.
Ejaz, N. Ali, I. and Tahir, M.F. (2011). Assessment of Delays and Cost Overruns during Construction Projects in Pakistan. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Taxila, Pakistan, Pakistan, 1-9.
Flyvbjerg, B. Holm, M.K. and Buhl, S.L. (2004). What Causes Cost Overrun in Transport Infrastructure Projects? Transport Reviews, 24 (1), 3-18.
Hussain, J.M. Abdul Rahman, I. and Memon, A.H. (2013). The Way Forward in Sustainable Construction: Issues and Challenges. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences (IJAAS), 2 (1), 31-42.
Imam, A. Mohammed, B. Wilson, D.C. and Cheeseman, C.R. (2008). Country Report: Solid Waste Management in Abuja, Nigeria. Waste Management, 28, 468-472.
Jackson, S. (2002). Project Cost Overruns and Risk Management. Paper, Whiteknights: School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading.
Jenpanitsub, A. (2011). Cost Overruns in Transport Projects - Experiences from Sweden. Msc Dissertation, Sweden, 1-127.
Kasimu, M.A. (2012). Significant Factors that Cause Cost Overrun in Building Projects in Nigeria. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(11), 775-
Koushki, P.A. Al-Rashid, K. and Kartam, N. (2005). Delays and Cost Increases in the Construction of Private Residential Projects in Kuwait. Construction Management and Economics, 23 (3),285-294.
Leedy, P.D. and Ormrod, J.E. (2014). Practical Research Planning and Design. Tenth Edition. Edited by Pearson new international Edition. Edinburgh Gate, England: Pearson Education Limited.
Le-Hoai, L. Lee, Y.D. and Lee, J.Y. (2008). Delay and Cost Overrun in Vietnam, Large Construction Projects: A Comparison with Other Selected Countries. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 12(6), 367-377.
Love, P. Edwards, D. and Irani, Z. (2011). Moving Beyond Optimism Bias and Strategic Misrepresentation: An Explanation for Social Infrastructure Project Cost Overruns. IEEE Transaction on Engineering Management. 12.
Lu, W. and Yuan, H. (2010). Exploring Critical Success Factors for Waste Management in Construction Projects of China. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 55, 201-208.
Ma, U. (2011). No waste: Managing Sustainability in Construction. Surrey: Gower Publishing Limited.
Malumfashi, B.I. and Shuaibu, I. (2012). Risk Management and Cost Overrun in Infrastructure Projects in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Policy Evaluation, 2(2),
Memon, A.H. (2013). The way Forward in Sustainable Construction: Issues and Challenges. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences (IJAAS,) 2 (1), 1-8.
Memon, A.H. Abdul-Rahman, I. Zainun, N.Y. and Abd-Karim, A.T. (2013). Web-based Risk Assessment Technique for Time and Cost Overrun (WRATTCO)-A Framework. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 129, 178 - 185.
MOU, K. (2008). The Role of Government and Construction Waste. Msc Dissertation, The Centre of Urban Planning & Environmental Management, University of Hong Kong, Hong kong, 1-179.
Nagapan, S. Abdul-Rahman, I. and Asmi, A. (2012b). Factors Contributing to Physical and Non-Physical Waste Generation in Construction Industry. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences (IJAAS), 1 (1), 1-10.
Nagapan, S. Abdul-Rahman, I. Asmi, A. and Hameed, A. (2012b). Identifying the Causes of Construction Waste-Case of Central. International Journal of Integrated Engineering,
Nega, F. (2008). Causes and Effects of Cost Overrun on Public Building Construction Projects in Ethiopia. Msc Dissertation, Ethopia.
Nguyen, B. Gupta, H. and Faniran, S. (n.d). Waste Minimization Strategies in the Construction Industry-A Geelong Case Study." Geelong, 1-10.
Oladiran, O. J. (2009). Causes and Minimization Techniques of Materials Waste in Nigerian Construction Process, Fifth International Conference on Construction in the 21st Century (CITC-V); Collaboration and Integration in Engineering, Management and Technology, 20-22, May 2009, Istanbul, Turkey.
Olawole, Y. A. and Sun, M. (2010). Cost and Time Control of Construction Projects: Inhibiting Factors and Mitigating Measures in Practice, Construction Management and Economics, 28(5), 509-526.
Osmani, M. (2011). Construction Waste. Chap. 15 in Waste: A Handbook for Management, by Letcher and Vallero, 1-565. San Diego: Academic Press an Imprint of Elsevier.
Osmani, M. Glass, J. and Price, A.D.F. (2008). Architects’ Perspectives on Construction Waste Reduction by Design. Waste Management, 28, 1147-1158.
Saidu, I.and Shakantu, W.M.W. (2015). A Relationship between Quality-of-Estimating, Construction Material Waste Genration and Cost Overrun in Abuja, Nigeria. Fourth Construction Management Conference, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Edited Emuze, F.A.; 95-104, 30 November-1st December, 2015.
Saidu, I. and Shakantu, W.M.W. (2016a). A Study of the Relationship between Material Waste and Cost Overrun in the Construction Industry. The 9th cidb Postgraduate Conference Cape Town, South Africa. "Emerging trends in construction organisational practices and project management knowledge area. Edited Windapo, A.O.,124-134, Feb, 2-4, 2016.
Saidu, I. and Shakantu, W.M.W. (2016b). A Conceptual Framework and a Mathematical Equaion for Managing Construction-Material Waste and Cost Overruns. World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology. International Journal of Social Behavioural, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 10 (2), 555-561.
Saidu, I. and Shakantu, W.MW. (2016c). The Contributions of Material Waste to Project Cost overrun in Abuja, Nigera. Acta Structilia, 23 (1), 99-113
Saidu, I. (2016). Management of Material Waste and Cost Overrun in the Nigerian Construction Industry. An Unpublished PhD Thesis, Department of Construction Management, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
Shanmugapriya, S. and Subramanian, K. (2013). Investigation of Significant Factors Affecting Time and Cost Overrun in Indian Construction Projects. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 3 (10), 734-740.
Singh, R. and Chari, A.R. (2009). Socio-Economic Issues in Waste Management by Informal sector in India. India.
Teo, S.P. Abdelnaser, O. and Abdul, H.K. (n.d.). Material Wastage in Malaysian Construction Industry. International Conference on Economics and Administration, Faculty of Administration, University of Bucharest Romania, 257-264.
Tam, V.W.Y. Shen, L.Y. Tam, C.M. (2007). Assessing the Levels of Material Wastage Affected by Sub-Contracting Relationships and Projects Types with their Correlations. Building and Environment, 42, 1471-1477.
Ubani, E.C. Okorocha, K.A. and Emeribe, S.C. (2011). Analysis of Factors Influencing Time and Cost overrun on Construction Projects in South Estern Nigeria. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research 2 (2): 73-84.
USEPA (2000). Building Savings: Strategies for Waste Reduction of Construction and Demolition Debris from Buildings. Solid Waste and Emergency Response (5306W).
Wahab, A. B. and Lawal, A. F. (2011). An Evaluation of Waste Control Measures. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 5(3).
Yuan, H., W. Lu, and J. J. Hao. 2013. "The Evolution of Construction Waste Sorting on-Site." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 20: 483-490.
Zewdu, Z.T. and G.T. Aregaw. 2015. "Causes of Contractor Cost Overrun in Construction Projects: The Case of Ethiopian Construction Sector." International Journal of Business and Economics Research 4, no. 4: 180-191.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Ibrahim Saidu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The JCBM is an open access journal, and the authors (copyright owners) should be properly acknowledged when works are cited. Authors retain publishing rights without any restrictions.